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Click here to register. Some were " scouts " who shared real-time updates whenever they spotted the police, [] [] while others were "firefighters" who extinguished tear gas with kitchenware and traffic cones.

They theorised that an economic downturn in Hong Kong caused by China's interference of the one-country, two systems principle or the US cancellation of Hong Kong's special trade status would destabilise mainland China's economy, and therefore, destroy China through "self-destruction" and give Hong Kong a chance to be "reborn" in the future.

Starting in August , radical protesters escalated the controversial use of violence and intimidation. They dug up paving bricks and threw them at police; others used petrol bombs, corrosive liquid and other projectiles against police.

Petrol bombs were also hurled by protesters at police stations and vehicles. Unlike other civil unrests, litting random smashing and looting were observed, as protesters vandalised targets they believed embodied injustice.

Several stations were closed for consecutive days due to severe damage. Doxing and cyberbullying were tactics used by both supporters and opponents of the protests.

Some protesters used these tactics on police officers and their families and uploaded their personal information online.

Affected officers, their friends and families were subject to death threats and intimidation. In a response, police said they had procedures to ensure that their members complied with privacy laws.

An Apple Daily reporter who was doxed by the website was targeted with sexual harassment via "hundreds of threatening calls".

The arrest was controversial as the sedition law was established during the colonial era and was rarely used.

Both sides of the protests spread unverified rumours, misinformation and disinformation , which caused heightened reactions and polarisation among the public.

This included tactics such as using selective cuts of news footage and creating false narratives. On 19 August , both Twitter and Facebook announced that they had discovered what they described as large-scale disinformation campaigns operating on their social networks.

After having videos banned on YouTube, some of China's online commentators uploaded their videos via platforms such as Pornhub instead, from where they were removed soon after.

On 13 June , allegations of organised cyberattacks were made against the Chinese government. According to polls conducted by the Hong Kong Public Opinion Research Institute , net approval of the Hong Kong Police Force fell to 22 percent in mid, due to its handling of the protests.

There have also been allegations conspiracy with criminals and consistency of law enforcement whether through deliberate inaction of poor organisation.

Hong Kong police were accused of using excessive and disproportionate force and not following both international safety guidelines and internal protocols while using their weapons.

Several police operations, in particular in Prince Edward station where the Special Tactical Squad STS assaulted commuters on a train, were thought by protesters and pro-democrats to have disregarded public safety.

The kettling of protesters, [91] the operations inside private areas, [] the deployment of undercover officers who were suspected of committing arson and vandalism, [] [] the firing of pepper ball rounds at protesters at a near point-blank range , [] the suspected evidence tampering , [] [] the dyeing of Kowloon Mosque and the use of the water cannon trucks against pedestrians, [] [] insufficient protection for police dogs , [] accessing patients' medical records without consent, [] [] [] and how police displayed their warning signs [] were also sources of controversy.

A police officer was arrested in April for perverting the course of justice after he allegedly instructed a teen to throw petrol bombs at a police station he works at.

Police were also accused of driving dangerously. Police defended the latter action as an appropriate response by well-trained officers to attacks by protesters, and that "[driving] fast doesn't mean it is unsafe".

Police were accused of obstructing first-aid service and emergency services. Videos showed the police kicking an arrestee [] pressing one's face against the ground, [] using one as a human shield , [] and stomping on a demonstrator's head.

This drew comparisons to the Death of George Floyd and prompted questions about the use of force on a non-violent minor.

Protesters reported suffering brain haemorrhage and bone fractures after being violently arrested by the police.

Detainees reported being forced to inhale tear gas, being beaten and threatened by officers; police officers shined laser lights directly into one detainee's eyes.

Police were also accused of spreading a climate of fear [] by conducting hospital arrests, [] [] arresting people arbitrarily , targeting youngsters, [] [] banning requests for demonstrations, [] and arresting high-profile activists and lawmakers.

Some uniformed officers used foul language to harass and humiliate protesters and journalists, [] insulted mediators, [] and provoked protesters.

Their claim that it was impossible to recognise a person in the video footage was widely criticised. Police sources of the Washington Post have said that a culture of impunity pervades the police force, such that riot police often disregarded their training or became dishonest in official reports to justify excessive force.

Police officers who felt that their actions were not justified were marginalised. The protests received significant press attention.

According to a poll conducted by CUHK, live feeds have replaced traditional media, social media and Telegram as the main way for citizens of Hong Kong to access protest-related information.

Ruser suggested that unlike other protests, the widespread use of livestreaming technology in the Hong Kong protests meant that there was "almost parity when it comes to what [one] can learn remotely researching it to actually being there".

Many of Hong Kong's media outlets are owned by local tycoons who have significant business ties in the mainland, so many of them adopt self-censorship at some level and have mostly maintained a conservative editorial line in their coverage of the protests.

The management of some firms have forced journalists to change their headline to sound less sympathetic to the protest movement.

Its criitics have surrounded the headquarters of RTHK and assaulted its reporters. Journalists have alleged experiencing interference and obstruction from the police in their reporting activities.

In some cases, despite identifying themselves, journalists were jostled, attacked, subdued, pepper-sprayed, or detained by the police.

In the World Press Freedom Index , Hong Kong's fall of seven places to 80th was a "direct result of the policy of violence against journalists that was led by the executive and the police during the demonstrations", according to Cedric Alviani from Reporters without Borders.

Hong Kong ranked 18th when the Press Freedom Index was established in , and Alviani said it would decline furtheer as the interests of the mainland Chinese regime enjoyed a greater priority.

Official statistics showed that Hong Kong had slipped into recession as its economy had shrunk in the second and third quarters of Some supply chains were disrupted because of the protests.

Meanwhile, some shops prospered as nearby protesters bought food and other commodities. The protests also affected property owners: Fearing the instability, some investors abandoned the purchases of land.

As investment sentiment waned, companies awaiting listing on the stock market put their initial public offerings IPO on hold, there being only one in August — the lowest since ; two large IPOs were shelved in June and July Various countries issued travel warnings to their citizens concerning Hong Kong, and many mainland tourists avoided travelling to Hong Kong due to safety concerns.

The economy in Hong Kong became increasingly politicised. Some corporations bowed to pressure and fired employees who expressed their support for the protests.

Lam's administration was criticised for its performance during the protests. Her perceived arrogance and obstinacy, [] [57] her extended absence, reluctance to engage in dialogue with protesters, and subpar performance at press conferences, [] were believed to have enabled the protesters to escalate events.

After she went against public opinion and unsuccessfully pushed the Extradition bill through its second reading on 12 June, Lam was named a " lame duck " by various foreign media.

Both sides claimed that rule of law in Hong Kong was undermined during the protests. While the government, the police and government supporters criticised the protesters for breaking the law and using violence to "extort" the government to accept the demands, the protesters and their sympathizers felt that selective law enforcement, selective prosecution, police brutality, and the government's blanket denial of all police wrongdoings all harmed rule of law and expressed their disappointment that the law cannot help them achieve justice.

He was later removed from handling all protest-related cases. The government's extended absence in the early stage of the protests left the police as the only group to clash with the protesters, resulting in both groups developing immense mutual hatred for each other.

However, this led to accusations that Lam and her administration endorsed police violence. Protesters demanded an independent commission of inquiry instead, as the members of the IPCC are mainly pro-establishment and it lacks the power to investigate, make definitive judgements, and hand out penalties.

Despite the IPCC concluding that there was no systemic problem with policing in Hong Kong, Stott said that the police had misjudged the dynamics of the protests, had used disproportionate force at almost all protests, thus creating more disorder than it prevented.

The reputation of the police took a serious drubbing following the heavy-handed treatment of protesters. Their actions against the protesters resulted in a breakdown of citizens' trust of the police.

The protests deepened the rift between the "yellow" pro-democracy and "blue" pro-government camps created since the Umbrella Revolution. People who opposed the protests argued that protesters were spreading "chaos and fear" across the city, causing damage to the economy and harming people not involved in the protests.

On the other hand, protesters justified their actions by what they saw as the greater good of protecting the city's freedoms against the encroachment of mainland China.

As the protests continued to escalate, citizens showed an increasing tolerance towards confrontational and violent actions.

This was evidenced by the adoption of "Glory to Hong Kong" as a protest anthem. Because of the internal redeployment of staff within the force to deal with the protests, anti-crime operations were "smaller and less frequent than in the past".

Criminals took advantage of the lowered police presence to commit crimes, [] leading to certain illegal acts such as home and shop burglaries being committed between June and October with higher frequency than the same period the year before.

The protests posed considerable health hazards on both government employed and contracted cleaners, with demands for better protection being raised, including by the Cleaning Workers Union, by September A survey, on social media, of more than 1, people by the Chinese University of Hong Kong department of psychology found that 38 per cent were troubled by depression-related problems, including "feeling depressed" and "having little interest in doing things".

The same study from the University of Hong Kong found that, out of residents under 18, This constituted an increase of 7 per cent from before the Occupy Central movement.

Suspected PTSD in was found to have a prevalence of Education, sex, age or household income were not seen to affect either likelihood of depression or PTSD, but heavy social media use of 2 or more hours per day was associated with both.

Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. Archived from the original on 16 October QS World University Rankings. February Archived from the original on 16 June Book of Han in Chinese.

Hong Kong. Gareth Stevens. China's Imperial Way. Odyssey Publications. Hong Kong: The Road to Cambridge University Press. A Concise History of Hong Kong.

Hong Kong University Press. Foreign Communities in Hong Kong, s—s. Palgrave Macmillan. The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press.

Reading Hong Kong, Reading Ourselves. City University of Hong Kong Press. Cornell Southeast Asia Program.

Sketches of China: partly during an inland journey of four months, between Peking, Nanking, and Canton; with notices and observations relative to the present war.

Government Information Services. Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. In Gaylord, Mark S.

Brill Publishers. Japan, Korea and the World Cup. Rare and Precious Plants of Hong Kong. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department.

Hong Kong: A Cultural History. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia. Nova Science Publishers.

In Chan, Ming K. New Perspectives on the Research of Chinese Culture. Westview Press. Harrassowitz Verlag. Placenames of the World. University of Hawaii Press.

Yale University Press. A Modern History of Hong Kong. University of California Press. FormAsia Books. University of Hong Kong. Streets: Exploring Kowloon.

World Tourism Organization. Xi, Xu; Ingham, Mike City Voices: Hong Kong writing in English, —present. Signs of a Colonial Era. Electing Hong Kong's Chief Executive.

In Latham, A. Intra-Asian Trade and the World Market. Chen, Li Journal of the History of International Law. June The China Quarterly.

The Gerontologist. Transport Policy. World Population Year : 1—2. Social Distance and Spatial Differentiation". Urban Studies.

Cornell International Law Journal. Multilingual Education. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.

Annals of Tourism Research. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin. Journal of Contemporary China. Electronic Markets.

Legislative Council. November Agriculture and Fisheries PDF. Hong Kong: The Facts Report. May Akamai Technologies. Airport Authority Hong Kong.

Inland Revenue Department. Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.

April Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. September January District Administration PDF. July Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Foreign and Commonwealth Office October Census and Statistics Department. Electoral Affairs Commission. Department of Health. Hong Kong Government Gazette Report.

United Nations Development Programme. Hong Kong Monetary Authority. District Councils. Institution of Railway Signal Engineers.

Archived from the original PDF on 11 April Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Panel on Education 8 January Panel on Home Affairs June The Queen's Pier Report.

Public Finance PDF. The — Budget Report. Railway Network PDF. Religion and Custom PDF. Subcommittee on Matters Relating to Railways Task Force on Land Policy Development Bureau.

Task Force on Population Policy China Development Institute. The Media PDF. December Tourism PDF. Transport PDF. Transport and Housing Bureau.

Transport and Housing Bureau 19 April Bank for International Settlements. Water Supplies PDF. Environmental Protection Department.

Financial Times. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 22 May Legal experts split on when Hong Kong should debate its future".

Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained". Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 6 June And how should we best guess crowd size?

Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 23 October The Economist. Frank, Robert 5 September Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 15 February The Guardian.

Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 3 February Can It Learn to Grow? Modern Farmer. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 26 September Fast Company.

Retrieved 22 December Bloomberg News. Prices for Hong Kong's famous Peak Tram to increase for second time in less than two years".

Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 31 May Wong, Joshua; Lim, Emily 23 February Retrieved 16 November Hong Kong wealth gap hits record high".

Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 5 March Bush, Richard C.

Main article: Media of Hong Kong. Archived from the original PDF on 11 April Retrieved 22 October Panel on Home Continue reading June Retrieved 14 February Several stations were closed for consecutive days more info to severe damage. They blamed the police for his death, though the police denied any involvement. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. Despite its small area, the territory is go here to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. Retrieved 29 August Stellen Sie ansami17 eine Frage zu Hong-Long. Im Pauschalpreis ist auch Sushi sowie Think, Slotmillion that enthalten. Gültig für Buchungen zwischen dem 24 Dez und dem 6 Jan für alle Unterkünfte, die im Buchungsformular die Möglichkeit bieten, einen Gutscheincode einzugeben. Diesen Eintrag verbessern. Cosiana Hotel Sapa. Hochwertige Auswahl an Speisen. Vietnam Hotels. Bewertung schreiben Bewertungen September

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The daily quota of immigrants from China since , the massive flows of mainland visitors strained Hong Kong's public services and eroded local culture; mainlanders' arrogance drew the scorn of Hongkongers.

Citizens saw these policies as Beijing's decision to strengthen its hold over Hong Kong. By , almost no Hong Kong youth identified themselves as Chinese.

The Umbrella Revolution was an inspiration that brought about a political awakening to some. In the years that followed, there was a general conclusion that peaceful and polite protests were ineffective in achieving the movement's goals, and became an example of what not to do in further protests.

Unlike the Umbrella Revolution, the —20 protests are leaderless, and some protesters resorted to using increasingly radical methods; police violence was also at a different level.

Economic factors were also cited as an underlying cause of anger among Hongkongers. Initially the protesters only demanded the withdrawal of the extradition bill.

While police estimated attendance at the march on Hong Kong Island at ,, the organisers claimed that 1. Riot police dispersed protesters using controversial methods such as kettling, firing tear gas, bean bag rounds and rubber bullets, and allegedly assaulted journalists in the process.

At night, protesters stormed the Legislative Council ; police took little action to stop them. Once again, police officers' failure to display their warrant cards was a source of contention.

Instead of dispersing, protesters passed the police-mandated endpoint, [95] and headed for the Liaison Office in Sai Ying Pun , where they defaced the Chinese national emblem.

Pro-Beijing lawmaker Junius Ho was later seen greeting members of the group, which led to accusations that he approved of the attack.

The protest escalated into violent clashes inside Yuen Long station. To disperse protesters, the police used more than canisters of tear gas.

The CHRF claimed attendance of at least 1. However, protests continued to insist on all five demands being met. Claims made by police on 24 September that the footage only showed a "yellow object" and not provably a man, and their suggestions that footage supporting the latter view may have been doctored, were widely criticised.

Protesters demanding to talk to her surrounded the venue and trapped her inside for four hours. Solidarity protests were held on the same day in over 40 cities around the world.

This resulted in the first use of live rounds by police. One year-old student protester was shot in the chest by police in Tsuen Wan while trying to hit a policeman with a rod.

Doxing uncovered the details of a police officer's wedding in Tseung Kwan O which were leaked. He was suspected to have fallen from the third floor.

They blamed the police for his death, though the police denied any involvement. These disrupted transport in the morning in various districts of Hong Kong.

With PolyU under complete lockdown by police, and students inside running short of supplies, protesters outside the campus attempted to penetrate police cordons to break through to those trapped inside but were repelled by tear gas and pepper balls.

Police fired volleys of tear gas into the crowd and revoked the Letter of No Objection one hour after the march began, [] alleging that protesters were throwing smoke bombs.

Meanwhile, police reported the peak turnout at , The CHRF-organised march was its first permitted by police in nearly four months. The rest of December saw the return of pop-up mall protests, with clashes occurring in several major shopping centres around the city, including New Town Plaza, which had been a site of clashes throughout the protests.

These pop-up protests continued during the Christmas season. Since the outbreak of the COVID pandemic in mainland China, the number of large-scale rallies has dwindled further because of fears that they might facilitate the spread of the virus.

Despite this, the pro-democratic movement's tactics were repurposed to pressure the government to take stronger actions to safeguard Hong Kong's public health in the face of the coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong.

People responded negatively to the government's attempt to set up quarantine and clinical centres in neighbourhoods close to residents and marched to express their discontent or blocked roads to thwart the government's plans across the territory.

As the coronavirus crisis escalated further in February and March , the scale of the protests dwindled further.

Hundreds of protesters gathered in shopping malls across the city on Mother's Day on 10 May as riot police quashed plans to hold a pro-democracy march before it began.

In October , the pro-democratic bloc in the LegCo launched a filibuster campaign led by vice-chairman Dennis Kwok , who presided over the LegCo meetings, to stall the House Committee election procedures and thereby the second reading of the National Anthem Bill , a bill that was considered to be "evil" by the democrats.

The two directors claimed that the two departments were exempted, and this was agreed by Lam's administration despite saying otherwise in the past.

This meant that the law would come into effect through promulgation and bypass the local legislation via the LegCo, which was how a national security law should be drafted in accordance to Article The draft sparked increased protests: the mass march on 24 May in Causeway Bay was the largest protest since the beginning of the pandemic, as civilians responded to online calls to march against both the National Anthem Bill and the proposed national security law.

Police fired pepper spray at lunchtime as protesters shouted slogans; officers stopped and searched residents and rounded up suspected protesters, forcing them to sit in rows on the ground.

On June 30, the NPCSC passed the national security law unanimously, without informing the public and the local officials of the content of the law.

Despite police ban, thousands of protesters showed up to protest against the newly implemented national security law. The police responded by deploying water cannon trucks and tear gas, and arrested at least ten people for breaching national security as they deemed that individuals who displayed or possessed flags, placards and phone stickers with protest slogans or other protest art have already committed the crime of "subverting the country".

Clashes between protesters and counter-protesters had become more frequent since the movement began in June Some civilians allegedly attempted to ram their cars into crowds of protesters or the barricades they set up.

Suspected gangsters vowed that they would "defend" their "homeland" and warned all anti-extradition bill protesters not to set foot in Yuen Long.

The Department of Justice has since been criticised by some lawyers for making "politically motivated" prosecutions. After the Yuen Long attack, assailants had not been charged several weeks after the event, while young protesters were charged with rioting within several days.

Amidst frustration that police had failed to prosecute pro-government violent counter-protesters and being increasingly distrustful of police because of this, [] [] protesters began clashing more frequently with counter-protesters.

Several suicide cases were linked to the protests. Several deaths, most notably, that of Chan Yin-lam , a year-old girl whom the police suspected had committed suicide, were the subject of a conspiracy theory given the unusual circumstances surrounding her death.

Chan's naked corpse was found floating in the sea near Yau Tong on 22 September , despite being an avid swimmer. In a report published by the United States Department of State in March , it noted that "there were no credible reports that the Hong Kong government or its agents committing arbitrary or unlawful killings" and there were no credible reports "of disappearances by or on behalf of government authorities.

This was close to an area where authorities were dispersing protesters attempting to disrupt a policeman's wedding. The protests have been described as being largely "leaderless".

For the most part there are two groups of protesters, namely the "peaceful, rational and non-violent" protesters and the "fighters" group.

The principle was the "Do Not Split"— praxis —which was aimed to promote mutual respect for different views within the same protest movement.

This was a response to the failure of the Umbrella Revolution which fell apart partly due to internal conflicts within the pro-democratic bloc.

The moderate group participated in different capacities. The peaceful group held mass rallies, flash mobs, and engaged in other forms of protest such as hunger strikes , [] forming human chains , [] launching petitions, [] labour strikes, [] class boycotts, [] [] and disrupting traffic.

To raise awareness of their cause and to keep citizens informed, protest supporters, working under pseudonyms, created protest art and derivative works , many of which mock the police and the government.

Protesters have attempted gain the support from foreign states. Activists, such as Ventus Lau , organised and coordinated numerous rallies calling for international support.

Efforts were made to transform the protests into a long-lasting movement. Protesters have advocated a " Yellow Economic Circle ".

Radical protesters adopted the "be water" strategy, inspired by Bruce Lee 's philosophy, often moving in a fluid and agile fashion to confound and confuse the police.

Frontliners' "full gear" consisted of umbrellas, face masks, helmets and respirators to shield themselves from projectiles and teargas.

Some were " scouts " who shared real-time updates whenever they spotted the police, [] [] while others were "firefighters" who extinguished tear gas with kitchenware and traffic cones.

They theorised that an economic downturn in Hong Kong caused by China's interference of the one-country, two systems principle or the US cancellation of Hong Kong's special trade status would destabilise mainland China's economy, and therefore, destroy China through "self-destruction" and give Hong Kong a chance to be "reborn" in the future.

Starting in August , radical protesters escalated the controversial use of violence and intimidation.

They dug up paving bricks and threw them at police; others used petrol bombs, corrosive liquid and other projectiles against police.

Petrol bombs were also hurled by protesters at police stations and vehicles. Unlike other civil unrests, litting random smashing and looting were observed, as protesters vandalised targets they believed embodied injustice.

Several stations were closed for consecutive days due to severe damage. Doxing and cyberbullying were tactics used by both supporters and opponents of the protests.

Some protesters used these tactics on police officers and their families and uploaded their personal information online. Affected officers, their friends and families were subject to death threats and intimidation.

In a response, police said they had procedures to ensure that their members complied with privacy laws. An Apple Daily reporter who was doxed by the website was targeted with sexual harassment via "hundreds of threatening calls".

The arrest was controversial as the sedition law was established during the colonial era and was rarely used. Both sides of the protests spread unverified rumours, misinformation and disinformation , which caused heightened reactions and polarisation among the public.

This included tactics such as using selective cuts of news footage and creating false narratives. On 19 August , both Twitter and Facebook announced that they had discovered what they described as large-scale disinformation campaigns operating on their social networks.

After having videos banned on YouTube, some of China's online commentators uploaded their videos via platforms such as Pornhub instead, from where they were removed soon after.

On 13 June , allegations of organised cyberattacks were made against the Chinese government. According to polls conducted by the Hong Kong Public Opinion Research Institute , net approval of the Hong Kong Police Force fell to 22 percent in mid, due to its handling of the protests.

There have also been allegations conspiracy with criminals and consistency of law enforcement whether through deliberate inaction of poor organisation.

Hong Kong police were accused of using excessive and disproportionate force and not following both international safety guidelines and internal protocols while using their weapons.

Several police operations, in particular in Prince Edward station where the Special Tactical Squad STS assaulted commuters on a train, were thought by protesters and pro-democrats to have disregarded public safety.

The kettling of protesters, [91] the operations inside private areas, [] the deployment of undercover officers who were suspected of committing arson and vandalism, [] [] the firing of pepper ball rounds at protesters at a near point-blank range , [] the suspected evidence tampering , [] [] the dyeing of Kowloon Mosque and the use of the water cannon trucks against pedestrians, [] [] insufficient protection for police dogs , [] accessing patients' medical records without consent, [] [] [] and how police displayed their warning signs [] were also sources of controversy.

A police officer was arrested in April for perverting the course of justice after he allegedly instructed a teen to throw petrol bombs at a police station he works at.

Police were also accused of driving dangerously. Police defended the latter action as an appropriate response by well-trained officers to attacks by protesters, and that "[driving] fast doesn't mean it is unsafe".

Police were accused of obstructing first-aid service and emergency services. Videos showed the police kicking an arrestee [] pressing one's face against the ground, [] using one as a human shield , [] and stomping on a demonstrator's head.

This drew comparisons to the Death of George Floyd and prompted questions about the use of force on a non-violent minor.

Protesters reported suffering brain haemorrhage and bone fractures after being violently arrested by the police.

Detainees reported being forced to inhale tear gas, being beaten and threatened by officers; police officers shined laser lights directly into one detainee's eyes.

Police were also accused of spreading a climate of fear [] by conducting hospital arrests, [] [] arresting people arbitrarily , targeting youngsters, [] [] banning requests for demonstrations, [] and arresting high-profile activists and lawmakers.

Some uniformed officers used foul language to harass and humiliate protesters and journalists, [] insulted mediators, [] and provoked protesters.

Their claim that it was impossible to recognise a person in the video footage was widely criticised. Police sources of the Washington Post have said that a culture of impunity pervades the police force, such that riot police often disregarded their training or became dishonest in official reports to justify excessive force.

Police officers who felt that their actions were not justified were marginalised. The protests received significant press attention.

According to a poll conducted by CUHK, live feeds have replaced traditional media, social media and Telegram as the main way for citizens of Hong Kong to access protest-related information.

Ruser suggested that unlike other protests, the widespread use of livestreaming technology in the Hong Kong protests meant that there was "almost parity when it comes to what [one] can learn remotely researching it to actually being there".

Many of Hong Kong's media outlets are owned by local tycoons who have significant business ties in the mainland, so many of them adopt self-censorship at some level and have mostly maintained a conservative editorial line in their coverage of the protests.

The management of some firms have forced journalists to change their headline to sound less sympathetic to the protest movement.

Its criitics have surrounded the headquarters of RTHK and assaulted its reporters. Journalists have alleged experiencing interference and obstruction from the police in their reporting activities.

In some cases, despite identifying themselves, journalists were jostled, attacked, subdued, pepper-sprayed, or detained by the police.

In the World Press Freedom Index , Hong Kong's fall of seven places to 80th was a "direct result of the policy of violence against journalists that was led by the executive and the police during the demonstrations", according to Cedric Alviani from Reporters without Borders.

Hong Kong ranked 18th when the Press Freedom Index was established in , and Alviani said it would decline furtheer as the interests of the mainland Chinese regime enjoyed a greater priority.

Official statistics showed that Hong Kong had slipped into recession as its economy had shrunk in the second and third quarters of Some supply chains were disrupted because of the protests.

Meanwhile, some shops prospered as nearby protesters bought food and other commodities. All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through border controls, regardless of nationality.

The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain separate economic and cultural relations with foreign nations.

The territory is divided into 18 districts, each represented by a district council. These advise the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy.

There are a total of district council seats, of which are directly elected. Hong Kong is governed by a hybrid regime that is not fully representative of the population.

Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public.

This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transfer of sovereignty.

Similarly, the Chief Executive is selected by establishment politicians and corporate members of the Election Committee rather than directly elected.

Ethnic minorities except those of European ancestry have marginal representation in government, and often experience discrimination in housing, education, and employment.

Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of abode in the territory.

Sex trafficking in Hong Kong is an issue. Hongkonger and foreign women and girls are forced into prostitution in brothels, homes, and businesses in the city.

The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be reintegrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately.

In , in a period of large-scale protests , the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed the controversial Hong Kong national security law.

Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland.

Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cwa , characteristic of southern China. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest.

Typhoons occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north.

The most temperate seasons are spring which can be changeable and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry.

Hong Kong averages 1, hours of sunshine per year; [] the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises.

Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. The Flagstaff House , the former residence of the commanding British military officer, is the oldest Western-style building in Hong Kong.

Tong lau , mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences.

These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants.

Mass-produced public-housing estates , built since the s, are mainly constructed in modernist style. The predominant language is Cantonese , a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong.

It is spoken by Among the religious population, the traditional " three teachings " of China, Buddhism , Confucianism , and Taoism , have the most adherents 20 per cent , and are followed by Christianity 12 per cent and Islam four per cent.

Life expectancy in Hong Kong was Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.

Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economy , characterised by low taxation , minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market.

Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports , trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product.

It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all its meat and rice.

Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector.

The sector generates Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in , many rail and road links have been improved and constructed facilitating trade between regions.

Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports.

Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in , dropping to about 13 per cent by The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds , and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading.

The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy , and implemented almost no trade controls.

Under the doctrine of " positive non-interventionism ", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.

Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme , a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws , and a state mortgage backer.

Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for five per cent of GDP. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor Macau.

Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world.

The Mass Transit Railway MTR is an extensive passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory. Although public transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over , private vehicles registered in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport. The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53, daily passengers.

Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements. The Peak Tram , Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.

With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of fresh water.

The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water, [] and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.

Broadband Internet access is widely available, with Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent, [] contributing to the high regional average connection speed of Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East and West.

Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.

The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development.

Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.

The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour , filial piety , and a preference for sons , are prevalent.

The degree of its adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business. Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine , despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins.

Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets , and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.

Dishes include congee , cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts , and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng fast, casual restaurants.

Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.

During the s, films such as A Better Tomorrow , As Tears Go By , and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films ; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.

The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. At the height of the local movie industry in the early s, over films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China.

The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the s.

Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.

The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra , composed of classical Chinese instruments , is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.

Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the East Asian Games , the Summer Olympics equestrian events , and the Premier League Asia Trophy.

Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the Atlanta Olympics.

No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations , the city's last appearance in the latter was in Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival.

The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board 's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad.

The first modern competition was organised in , and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in The Hong Kong Jockey Club , the territory's largest taxpayer, [] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.

Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom , particularly the English system.

Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty. Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit.

These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau.

Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.

The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction , with written education in both Chinese and English.

Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.

Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies.

The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Hong Kong disambiguation and HK disambiguation. Special administrative region of China. Special administrative region in People's Republic of China.

Special administrative region. Chinese [a] English [b]. Regional language. Official scripts. Tai Mo Shan. South China Sea. Main article: Architecture of Hong Kong.

See also: List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong. Main article: Transport in Hong Kong. Main article: Culture of Hong Kong.

See also: Lingnan culture. Main article: Hong Kong cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Hong Kong. Main article: Music of Hong Kong.

Leslie Cheung left is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.

Main article: Sport in Hong Kong. Main article: Education in Hong Kong. Main article: Media of Hong Kong. Hong Kong portal China portal Asia portal.

Residents predominantly speak Cantonese , the de facto regional standard. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger.

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